Army/Civilian



In this section we will talk about the Army/Civilian masks. I will show you all this part of my collection.

Type 87 Army Gas Mask:
The provisional type 87 was an army gas mask developed pn 1927. The previous type 1 and type 2 became obsolete compared with the international advance in chemical warfare protection. Inside it has anti-fog tyssot tubes and seems very similar to the US A.T. gas mask. As other japanese masks, this one has got a rubberized fabric facepiece and a 6 points harness. The ones in the collection have got flapper exhale valves, but there was another type 87 with other kind of exhale valve which is not in the collection and has never been seen nowadays.

The facepieces of this mask is made of stocksinette covered rubber about 1,5 mm thick, cut to conform with the contour of the face. The edges are reinforced with stockinette s'rips attached with cement. The eyepieces are of laminated glass 5,5cm in diameter held by metal frames outside die meter which screw onto threaded collars crimped to the facepiece. They are made airtight by a rubber basket which fits around the lens, An additional rubber gasket fits tight under the metal frame on the outside of the eyepiece.
The angle tube is an inverted Y shape. The hose is connected to the front duct. Air is taken into the mask through the Y shaped tissot tube The outlet valve is a six sided eblong flutter type valve 7cm with alternate sides split. One of these slips over the angle tube and is secured there with thread. The other two slits allow air to pass out. A 9mm metal guard bolted to a crosspiece on the angle tube protects the valve.
The canister with this mask is of ridged metal 13cm wide x 7cm thick x 16cm high. A  threaded coupling connects the hose and canister. A threaded metal plug is provided
for sealing the 4cm inlet port when canister is not in use.

 Two types of type 87 are in the collection:

1. What seems to be a very early version in rubber and a hose covered on canvas. Two of this models are in the collection, both of them in good conditions and able to be displayed on mannequin head, unfortunately this ones are missing the filters.

Inside it has got the tissot tubes:

2. A model which has a rubberized fabric facepiece and a rubber hose. This one keeps the filter. The condition of this mask is surprisingly good for its age, the rubber is quite elastic and can be displayed perfectly on a mannequin head. The harness is missing.

The tissot tubes inside avoided the fog in the lenses:

The canister with this mask is of ridged metal 13cm wide x 7cm thick x 16cm high. A  threaded coupling connects the hose and canister. A threaded metal plug is provided for sealing the 4cm inlet port when canister is not in use.
 

This is the third model known of this mask with the different exhale valve, I suppose the only significant differences between this one and the ones exposed before is the exhale valve.
The rear duct frames the outlet valve housing in which is seated a four tipped rubber valve protected by a semi-oval screen on metal guard.

Here we can see this mask in use with the Type95:

Unknow Experimental/Prototype Japanese Gas Mask:
Unknown Japanese Gas Mask: The provisional type 87 became obsolete compared with the international chemical protection. On april 1929 the army’s scientific research institute (陸軍科学研究所) started to reassess the type 87 and make necessary improvements. Based on their research, twenty prototypes were produced in december that year and to test them on cold weather on january next year by the 75th infantry regiment and 19th engineer battalion based in Hoeryong northern korea, where the antifogging measures and exhalation valve fuction were verified to work well. I do believe this is one of those prototypes, as the tyssot tubes, to avoid the fogging, go to the upper part of the lenses. No other model as this one has been seen.It has 6 points harness. It is dry, but still keeping its form.

Type 91:
Army gas mask model 91. The facepiece is of stockinette covered heavy rubber, the eyepieces are set in about 6cm metal frames. The inlet-outlet system consists of a Y-shaped tissot tube and a rubber disk valve seated in a housing extending from the rear of the angle tube and protected by a screw-on perfored metal cap.
The head harness consist of a stockinette covered rubber pad carrying six elastic webbing straps. The upper four have sliding buckles for adjusting while the lower two are equipped with quck-release buckles.
The 30cm long hose is of brown crepe rubber wired to the angle tube and attached to the canister with a wing nut clamp. The canister is missing in this one.


Model 95:
Army gas mask "model 95". It has a khaki stockinette covered facepiece with molded tissot tube and circular eyepieces with removable threaded rims. The khaki-colored canister is approximately 15cm high, 13cm wide and 7cm thick. The carrier is a rectangular canvas bag. A rubberized hood is sometimes attached to this mask to protect head and shoulders. I have one of these specimens. It is marked Showa13 (1938) with a 6 points harness. This mask is the evolution of the type 91.

And a second type 95 which keeps the original hose and filter:



Model 99:
Army gas mask "model 99". Similar in appearance to themodel 95". It is fitted with a rubber nosepiece held inside the facepiece by a stud, and has a short canister only about 11cm. It is marked Showa17 (1942). 6 points harness.

Second Type 99 without oronasal cup:

And third one in worse shape:



Unknow STS mask:
I would date this mask in late 20's-early 30's. I read that it could be used as a training mask. It has a stamp inside with some information about the mask and owner. The mask was made by STS, a japanese company. The desing of this mask is quite simple.

In the stamp we can read:
''STS (Company's name). Protection Uniform, Agematsu (a town in Nagano prefecture, where I think the factory was). And Matsumoto from the town of Ueno''

This is a second one I own, it hasnt got the STS label or any stamp related with that factory. The only markings it has is the name of the first owner which is wrote in the inside of the mask. The name of the girl who once owned it was: Kuniko Suzuki.


EARLY JAPANESE MASK:
The name or model of this mask is unknow. It seems to be the earlier model of the type 1. The filter is quite small compared with later filters.

And this is the second filter that came with the mask, it seems to be made of bakelite:



Civillian Gas Mask Type 1 / Model A
Civilian gas mask type 1, model A: For civil defense. Many were later shortened to save raw material for the upcoming war against China and later for the Pacific campaign. Later this model would be improved. 5 points harness. Interesting information about this one: It is marked Showa12 (1937) in October by the Japanese Army Chemical Laboratory. The hose conection is marked ''Kishin #22102' and ''Yoan #170514'', Names and numbers. The box is marked ''Ichigotora Tokyo Syowakako Oki Otsu''. Here's a pic:

And this is the short version without hose and with short filter. The mask is dry, but still keeping its form:
 


Earlier versions. 
I have 2 early Typ1/ModelA versions from early 30's. Both have 6 points harness. Notice silver eye rings:
                -One with bakelite valve block (Or inlet assemblies):


-. This other has metalic valve block. Interesting dates about this one:
  • 専用甲 was the name of the mask used when painting decks of battle ships. (that's what a japanese friend told me) 
  • 日本昭和ゴム is the company name of the manufacturer of the mask. 
  • 水上 is above water, which explains it was used in a ship.
Civillian Gas Mask Type 1 / Model A (Improved):
Civilian gas mask type 1, model A (improved). This gas mask, although originally designed for civilian use, was also issued to Army personnel. The facepiece is tan colored with molded tissot tube and circular eyepieces with fixed rims. The tan colored canister is approximately 12cm high, 13cm wide and 7cm thick. The carrier is a small rectangular canvas bag with a 4cm diameter hole in the bottom. 6 points harness.
My model doesn't have a hose, it has bag and short filter:

Danyo Model 1 Type ko  Gas Mask:
Firefighters Gas Mask. It has a 6 points harness. It was made by ''Fujikura''. It was used by firefighters. It is marked Showa15 (1940). Tank dimensions: 13cm, side 14cm and hose 35cm.
My mask is in really good conditions and fully elastic, the straps are little damaged (not broken, just dry) but can still be displayed.

團用it's read as Danyo and the one next to that is Type ko, Danyo means that it was specifically used by the 警防團keibodan they are the equivalent of fire fighters also 團is old kanji for 団

Unknown Gas Mask:
Unknown gas mask: I believe this is an early version of the Type 2 Model A Modified D. It has 6 points harness and the exale valve's cover is screwed. There's not much information about this piece, but will update as soon I get any information:



Type 2 Model A Modified D:
Type 2 Model A Modified D: This model has the exhale valve on the front housed in a small metallic case. It has a 6 points harness. Mine has something written on the forehead which means ''Special three''. I guess it is related with a special unit or something of the sort. It is complete with short filter and bag. I have seen models with hose and big filters, but it is not confirmed as original.

Civilian Gas Mask Type 2, Modification C:
Civilian Gas Mask, type 2, modification C: This one seems to be a variation or evolution of the Type 2 Model A Modified D. This mask has the tissot system, 2 tubes to conduct the air. I have 2 kind of them:
  • 1º Model: With big filter, hose and big bag. It is marked Showa 13(1938):
  • 2º Model: With short filter, whitout hose and small bag:


Baby Gas Masks:
5 japanese baby gas masks made by FMC. The most interesting is not that they are hard to find, the most interesting is that they are marked with the same family name, Nakajima. What means that they were used by brothers and sisters, their names are: Isa, Fumiko, Kamezou, Chiyoko and Yoneko/Makiko. (Special thanks to Takahiro for the translation)
5 brothers and sisters that have been together for the last 70 years.


Unknow Mask:
This one seems to be a kind of baby mask, the difference is that it is a bit bigger and it was made with a width rubber. I took some photos to check the differences:

Filters:
Like in the Model 98, this one has similar system like the baby masks:
And the marks it has:

Differences between harness:
Left: Unknow mask
Right: Baby mask

Type B Firefighter Hood:

This quite rare hood was used specially by firefighters. The guy in the box's photo is wearing a sash that says: ''Fire prevention leader'':

This is the hood. The conditions are great, as you can see by the photos:

Sides of the hood:
It also has a cap on the filter with a note, it means: ''Take off cover off filter when going to use''

It has a stamp inside, what means: ''Aikoku scientific company''


The box is in good shape, on it we can read:
  • Patriotic Gas Mask
  • Patent approved by goverment
  • Patent approbed by Manchukuo goverment.
  • Patriotic science

In one of the box's sides we can find this, it is a period of use chart:


Also, I was a bit surprised, it came with a carry bag. At first look, I thought it didnt belong to this mask, but looking closer I found a stamp on it with the same logo the box has:

Carry Bag:

Details of the locker and stamp/logo:

I also have a second one, without bag, case and it is missing one of the lenses.